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「材料课堂」常备!《材料科学基础》专有名词英文翻译

基础知识 mse_material 7425阅读 扫描二维码

第一章 绪论

metal: 金属

ceramic: 陶瓷

polymer: 聚合物

Composites: 复合材料

Semiconductors: 半导体

Biomaterials: 生物材料

Processing: 加工过程

Structure: 组织结构

Properties: 性质

Performance: 使用性能

Mechanical properties: 力学性能

Electrical properties: 电性能

Thermal behavior: 热性能

Magnetic properties: 磁性能

Optical properties: 光性能

Deteriorative characteristics: 老化特性

第二章 原子结构与原子键

Atomic mass unit (amu): 原子质量单位

Atomic number: 原子数

Atomic weight: 原子量

Bohr atomic model: 波尔原子模型

Bonding energy: 键能

Coulombic force: 库仑力

Covalent bond: 共价键

Dipole (electric): 偶极子

electronic configuration: 电子构型

electron state: 电位

Electronegative: 负电的

Electropositive: 正电的

Ground state: 基态

Hydrogen bond: 氢键

Ionic bond: 离子键

Isotope: 同位素

Metallic bond: 金属键

Mole: 摩尔

Molecule: 分子

Pauli exclusion principle: 泡利不相容原理

Periodic table: 元素周期表

Polar molecule: 极性分子

Primary bonding: 强键

Quantum mechanics: 量子力学

Quantum number: 量子数

Secondary bonding: 弱键

valence electron: 价电子

van der waals bond: 范德华键

Wave-mechanical model: 波粒二象性模型

第三章 金属与陶瓷的结构

Allotropy: 同素异形现象

Amorphous: 无定形

Anion: 阴离子

Anisotropy: 各向异性

atomic packing factor(APF): 原子堆积因数

body-centered cubic (BCC): 体心立方结构

Bragg’s law: 布拉格定律

Cation: 阳离子

coordination number: 配位数

crystal structure: 晶体结构

crystal system: 晶系

crystalline: 晶体的

diffraction: 衍射

face-centered cubic (FCC): 面心立方结构

第四章 晶体缺陷

Alloy: 合金

A metallic substance that is composed of two or more elements.

由两种及以上元素组成的金属材料。

Weight percent (wt%):质量百分数

Concentration specification on the basis of weight (or mass) of a particular element relative to the total alloy weight (or mass).

Stoichiometry: 正常价化合物

For ionic compounds, the state of having exactly the ratio of cations to anions speci-fied by the chemical formula.

在离子化合物中,正、负离子的比例严格遵守化学公式定义的化合价关系。

Imperfection: 缺陷,不完整性

A deviation from perfection; normally applied to crystalline materials wherein there is a deviation from atomic/molecular order and/or continuity.

对完美性的偏离,在材料科学领域中通常指晶体材料中原子/分子在排列顺序/连续性上的偏离。

Point defect: 点缺陷

A crystalline defect associated with one or, at most, several atomic sites.

一种仅波及一个或数个原子的晶体缺陷。

Vacancy: 空位

A normally occupied lattice site from which an atom or ion is missing.

一个缺失原子或离子的晶格节点位置。

Vacancy diffusion: 空位扩散

The diffusion mechanism wherein net atomic migration is from lattice site to an adjacent vacancy.

一种扩散机制,此时原子的净迁移是从晶格节点位置迁移到相近的空位中。

Self-interstitial: 自间隙原子

A host atom or ion that is positioned on an interstitial lattice site.

处于自身晶格间隙中的原子或离子。

Schottky defect: 肖脱基缺陷

In an ionic solid, a defect consisting of a cation–vacancy and anion–vacancy pair.

在离子晶体中的一种缺陷结构,它是由一个阳离子空位和一个阴离子空位组成的空位对。

Atomic vibration:原子振动

The vibration of an atom about its normal position in a substance.

材料中原子在其平衡位置附近的振动。一般说来,这种振动与温度相关,温度越高,振动的幅度越大,因此也称为原子热振动。

Substitutional solid solution: 置换固溶体

A solid solution wherein the solute atoms replace or substitute for the host atoms.

溶质原子取代或代替溶剂原子而形成的固溶体。

Interstitial diffusion: 间隙扩散

A diffusion mechanism whereby atomic motion is from interstitial site to interstitial site.

一种扩散机制,此时原子的运动是从晶格间隙位置迁移到另一个相近的间隙位置。

Interstitial solid solution: 间隙固溶体

A solid solution wherein relatively small solute atoms occupy interstitial positions between the solvent or host atoms.

相对尺寸较小的溶质原子占据溶剂或晶格原子之间间隙位置所形成的固溶体。

Solid solution: 固溶体

A homogeneous crystalline phase that contains two or more chemical species.

Both substitutional and interstitial solid solutions are possible.

包含两种或两种以上元素的均匀单相。固溶体可以以置换固溶体或间隙固溶体的形式存在。

Solid-solution strengthening: 固溶体强化

Hardening and strengthening of metals that result from alloying in which a solid solution is formed.

The presence of impurity atoms restricts dislocation mobility.

由于形成固溶体的合金化过程引起的金属硬化和强化,其机制是异类原子的存在限制了位错的可动性。

Solute: 溶质

One component or element of a solution present in a minor concentration.

It is dissolved in the solvent.

溶液(固溶体)中,含量较少的组元或元素。溶质溶解在溶剂中。

Solution heat treatment: 固溶处理,均匀化退火

The process used to form a solid solution by dissolving precipitate particles.

Often, the solid solution is supersaturated and metastable at ambient conditions as a result of rapid cooling from an elevated temperature.

让沉淀物融解而形成固溶体的热处理过程。通常情况下,从固溶处理温度下快速冷却,形成室温下亚稳态过饱和固溶体。

Solvent: 溶剂

The component of a solution present in the greatest amount.

It is the component that dissolves a solute.

溶液(固溶体)中,含量最大的组元,此组元溶解了溶质。

Burgers vector (b): 柏氏矢量

A vector that denotes the magnitude and direction of lattice distortion associated with a dislocation.表示位错引起晶格畸变程度和方向的矢量

Composition (Ci): 成分,组成

The relative content of a particular element or constituent (i)

within an alloy, usually expressed in weight percent or atom percent.

合金中某一元素或组分的相对含量,通常用质量百分数或原子百分数来表示。

Defect structure: 缺陷结构,缺陷组态

Relating to the kinds and concentrations of vacancies and interstitials in a ceramic compound.

在陶瓷化合物中,与空位、间隙原子的类型和偏聚有关的缺陷组态。

Dislocation: 位错

A linear crystalline defect around which there is atomic misalignment.

晶体材料中的线状缺陷,在其附近,原子发生错排。

Plastic deformation corresponds to the motion of dislocations in response to an applied shear stress. Edge, screw, and mixed dislocations are possible.

在外加切应力作用下位错的运动可以导致晶体材料的塑性变形。可能存在的位错类型有刃型位错、螺型位错和混合型位错。

Screw dislocation: 螺型位错

A linear crystalline defect associated with the lattice distortion created when normally parallel planes are joined together to form a helical ramp.

The Burgers vector is parallel to the dislocation line.

一种一维线型晶体缺陷,形态上可是描述为当相互平行的相邻晶面之间依次错粘合在一起形成的螺旋型斜面的中心线区域所形成的原子错排组态。

螺型位错的柏氏矢量平行与其位错线。

Mixed dislocation: 混合位错

A dislocation that has both edge and screw components.

同时含有刃型分量和螺型分量的位错。

Dislocation density: 位错密度

The total dislocation length per unit volume of material; alternately, the number of dislocations that intersect a unit area of a random surface section.

在单位体积材料中包含位错的长度,或者说在材料内部任意单位截面上位错线的根数。

Dislocation line: 位错线

The line that extends along the end of the extra half-plane of atoms for an edge dislocation, and along the center of the spiral of a screw dislocation.

刃型位错中多余半原子面边缘的连线,或者螺型位错中错排螺旋的中心轴线。

Edge dislocation:刃型位错

A linear crystalline defect associated with the lattice distortion produced in the vicinity of the end of an extra half plane of atoms within a crystal.

The Burgers vector is perpendicular to the dislocation line.

一种一维线型晶体缺陷,形态上可是描述为晶体中存在的多余半原子面的末端附近区域所形成的原子错排组态。

刃型位错的柏氏矢量垂直与其位错线。

Electroneutrality: 电中性

The state of having exactly the same numbers of positive and negative electrical charges (ionic and electronic), that is, of being electrically neutral.

材料中一种正负电荷(离子和电子)数目精确相等的状态。在此状态下,材料是不带电的。

Frenkel defect: 弗仑克尔缺陷

In an ionic solid, a cation–vacancy and cation–interstitial pair.

在离子固体中的阳离子-空位对和阳离子-间隙原子对。

Grain: 晶粒

An individual crystal in a polycrystalline metal or ceramic.

金属或陶瓷多晶体中的一个单独的小晶体。

Grain boundary: 晶界

The interface separating two adjoining grains having different crystallographic orientations.

把两个相邻具有不同晶体学取向的晶粒分离开的界面。

Grain growth: 晶粒长大

The increase in average grain size of a polycrystalline material; for most materials, an elevated-temperature heat treatment is necessary.

在多晶体材料中晶粒平均尺寸的增加,对大多数材料来说,这需要在一定温度下进行热处理。

Grain size: 晶粒尺寸

The average grain diameter as determined from a random cross section.

从材料任一横截面上测量的晶粒直径的平均值。

Microscopy: 显微术,显微镜学

The investigation of microstructural elements using some type of microscope.

用某种类型的显微镜对材料微观组织情况进行的研究。

Microstructure: 显微组织

The structural features of an alloy (e.g., grain and phase structure) that are subject to observation under a microscope.

在显微镜下观察到的某合金的结构特征(例如:晶粒和相的组织结构特征)。

Photomicrograph: 显微组织照片

The photograph made with a microscope, which records a microstructural image.

在显微镜下拍摄,记录显微组织结构形态的照片。

Scanning electron microscope: 扫描电子显微镜,SEM

A microscope that produces an image by using an electron beam that scans the surface of a specimen; an image is produced by Cu forms a substitutional solid solution for concentrations up to reflected electron beams.

Examination of surface and/or microstructural features at high magnifications is possible.

使用一束电子流扫描样品表面,用样品产生的反射电子束产生图象的一种显微镜。扫描电子显微镜的应用使对样品的表面特征和显微组织特征进行高倍观察成为可能。

Scanning probe microscope: 扫描探针显微镜,SPM

A microscope that does not produce an image using light radiation. Rather, a very small and sharp probe raster scans across the specimen surface; out-of-surface plane deflections in response to electronic or other interactions with the probe are monitored, from which a topographical map of the specimen surface(on a nanometer scale) is produced.

一种不用光学射线产生图象,而是用非常尖锐的探针依次横扫描过样品表面,

利用探针对被测样品进行扫描,同时检测扫描过程中探针与样品的相互作用(如样品-探针间的隧道电流或相互作用力等),得到样品相关性质(如电子态密度、形貌、摩擦力、磁畴结构等),因而统称为扫描探针显微镜(SPM)

Transmission electron microscope: 透射电子显微镜,TEM

A microscope that produces an image by using electron beams that are transmitted (pass through) the specimen.

Examination of internal features at high magnifications is possible.

透射电子显微镜是用穿过样品的透射电子束产生样品组织形貌像的显微镜。在透射电子显微镜上,可以在高倍下研究样品的内部结构特征。

第五章 扩散

Diffusion: 扩散

Mass transport by atomic motion.

固体中原子,或分子等,通过热运动而发生长程迁移,或宏观物质传输现象。

这里所谈的原子迁移,在是指固体中原子脱离它原来的平衡位置跃迁到另一平衡位置的位移。从产生扩散的原因来看,原子的迁移主要分为两大类,一类称为化学扩散,它是由于扩散物质在固体中分布不均匀、在化学浓度梯度的推动下产生的扩散;另一类称为自扩散,它是在没有化学浓度梯度情况下,仅仅由于热振动而产生的扩散。自扩散现象只有采用放射性同位素技术才能察觉。此外,还有应力场、热场和电场等所引起的扩散。

Diffusion flux (J): 扩散通量

The quantity of mass diffusing through and perpendicular to a unit cross-sectional area of material per unit time.

单位时间内通过一个垂直与扩散方向上单位横截面积内的通过物质量。

Diffusion coefficient (D): 扩散系数

The constant of proportionality between the diffusion flux and the concentration gradient in Fick’s first law.

Its magnitude is indicative of the rate of atomic diffusion.

Fick第一定律中,扩散通量和浓度梯度之间的比例系数。其量级表示了原子扩散的速度。

Fick’s first law: 菲克第一定律,扩散第一定律

The diffusion flux is proportional to the concentration gradient.

This relationship is employed for steady-state diffusion situations.

扩散通量与浓度梯度成正比例。这种关系被用于描述稳定态扩散。

Fick’s second law: 菲克第二定律,扩散第二定律

The time rate of change of concentration is proportional to the

second derivative of concentration.

This relationship is employed in non steady-state diffusion situations.

浓度对时间的变化率成正与浓度对距离的二阶导数。这种关系被用于描述非稳定态扩散。

Steady-state diffusion: 稳定态扩散

The diffusion condition for which there is no net accumulation or depletion of diffusing species.

The diffusion flux is independent of time.

扩散组元既没有净堆积也没有净亏空的扩散过程是稳定态扩散。也可以描述为:扩散通量与时间无关的扩散过程是稳定态扩散

Nonsteady-state diffusion: 非稳定态扩散

The diffusion condition for which there is some net accumulation or depletion of diffusing species.

The diffusion flux is dependent on time.

扩散过程中,扩散组元存在净堆积或净亏空的扩散过程是非稳定态扩散。也可以描述为:扩散通量与时间有关的扩散过程是非稳定态扩散

Self-diffusion: 自扩散

Atomic migration in pure metals.

纯金属中的原子迁移过程。

Interstitial diffusion: 间隙扩散

A diffusion mechanism whereby atomic motion is from interstitial site to interstitial site.

晶体扩散机制的一种。间隙原子由一个间隙位置迁移至邻近的间隙位置所构成的扩散。

Vacancy diffusion: 空位扩散

The diffusion mechanism wherein net atomic migration is from lattice site to an adjacent vacancy.

一种扩散机制,这时候原子的净迁移过程是从晶格结点位置移动到邻近的空位中。

Activation energy (Q): 激活能,Q

The energy required to initiate a reaction, such as diffusion.

开动某一反应或过程,例如扩散过程,所需要的能量。

Carburizing: 渗碳

The process by which the surface carbon concentration of a ferrous alloy is increased by diffusion from the surrounding environment.

从周围环境中向铁基合金表面扩散碳,从而使其表面碳浓度提高的工艺过程。

Component: 组分

A chemical constituent (element or compound) of an alloy, which may be used to specify its composition.

合金的任一组成(可以是元素或化合物),可以被用于区分其构成成分。

Composition (Ci), Concentration: 成分,Ci

The relative content of a particular element or constituent (i)

within an alloy, usually expressed in weight percent or atom percent. Also call it concentration.

合金中某一元素或组分的相对含量,通常用质量百分数或原子百分数来表示。也称为浓度。

Concentration gradient (dC/dx): 浓度梯度,

The slope of the concentration profile at a specific position.

浓度曲线某一点处的斜率。

Concentration profile: 浓度曲线

The curve that results when the concentration of a chemical species is plotted versus position in a material.

在材料中,某种化学物质的浓度随其位置关系变化的曲线。

Interdiffusion, impurity diffusion: 互扩散

Diffusion of atoms of one metal into another metal.

一种金属中的原子向另一种金属中的扩散叫互扩散,又称为杂质扩散。

第六章 力学性能

Anelasticity: 滞弹性
In most engineering materials, elastic deformation will continue after the stress application, and upon load release some finite time is required for complete recovery.

This time dependent elastic behavior is known as anelasticity.

应力施加后,大多数工程材料弹性形变都会持续,并且撤去加载,样品的完全回复也需要一定的时间。这种与时间相关的弹性行为称为滞弹性。
Design stress: 设计应力
For static situations and when ductile materials are used, design stress, σd, is taken as the calculated stress level σc (on the basis of the estimated maximum load) multiplied by a design factor, N’, that is σd= N’σc, where N’ is greater than unity.
对于静态条件以及延展性材料的情况下,设计应力σd是计算的应力σc(即估算的最大载荷)乘以一个设计因子N’,即σd= N’σc,其中N’大于1。
Ductility: 延伸度
Ductility is a measure of the degree of plastic deformation that has been sustained at fracture.
延伸度是指材料在断裂时发生的塑性形变程度的量度。
Elastic deformation: 弹性形变
Deformation in which stress and strain are proportional is called elastic deformation. Elastic deformation is nonpermanent, which means that when the applied load is released, the piece returns to its original shape.
应力与应变成正比关系的形变称为弹性形变。弹性形变是非永久性的,即撤去加载后,样品可恢复初始的形状。
Elastic recovery:弹性回复
Elastic recovery means that when the applied load is released, the piece returns to its original shape.
弹性回复是指当样品所受应力撤销后,其完全回复到初始形状的现象。
Elastomer: 弹性体

Elastomer is a class of polymers whose deformation displayed by strain-stress curve is totally elastic, i.e., large recoverable strains produced at low stress levels.

弹性体是聚合物的一个种类,它的应力-应变曲线表明其变形是完全弹性的,即很低的应力变化就会产生很大的可回复应变。
Engineering strain: 工程应变

Engineering strain ε is defined according to ε = (li-l0)/l0 = Δl/l0, in which l0 is the original length before any load is applied, and li is the instantaneous length. Sometimes the quantity li-l0 is denoted as Δl, and is the deformation elongation or change in length at some instant, as referenced to the original length. Engineering strain is unitless.
工程应变ε由方程ε = (li-l0)/l0 = Δl/l0定义,这里l0是样品加载前的初始长度,li是加载瞬间的长度,有时li-l0也用Δl来表示,即代表与初始长度相比较,某一时刻样品形变的延长率或长度的变化。工程应变是没有单位的。
Engineering stress: 工程应力
Engineering stress σ is defined by the relationship σ = F/A0, in which F is the instantaneous load applied perpendicular to the specimen cross section, in units of newtons (N), and A0 is the original cross-sectional area before any load is applied (m2). The units of engineering stress are megapascals, MPa.
工程应力σ的定义为σ = F/A0,这里F是加载在垂直样品横截面的瞬间载荷,单位为牛顿,A0是加载前样品的初始横截面积(单位m2),工程应力单位为MPa。
Flexural strength: 抗弯强度
For the brittle ceramic materials, flexural strengths are determined by the stress at fracture in transverse bending tests.
对脆性陶瓷材料来说,抗弯强度即为横向弯曲试验中样品断裂时的应力。
Hardness: 硬度
Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localize plastic deformation.
硬度是材料抵抗局部塑性形变的量度。
Modulus of elasticity: 弹性模量
For most metals that are stressed in tension and at relatively low levels, stress and strain are proportional to each other through the relationship σ = Eε. This is known as Hooke’s law, and the constant of proportionality E (GPa) is the modulus of elasticity, or Young’s modulus.
大多数金属在较低的拉力作用下,应力和应变成正比关系,可表达为σ = Eε,这就是胡克定理,比例常数E(GPa)就是弹性模量,或杨氏模量。
Plastic deformation: 塑性形变
As the material is deformed beyond the strain that elastic deformation persists, the stress is no longer proportional tostrain, and permanent, nonrecoverable, or plastic deformation occurs.
当材料的形变超出弹性形变发生的范围,其应力将不再与应变成正比,永久的、不可回复的形变发生,即为塑性形变。
Poisson’s ratio: 泊松比
Poisson’s ratio represents the negative ratio of transverse and longitudinal strains.
泊松比的定义为样品横向应变与轴向应变的相反数。
Proportional limit: 比例极限For metals that experience the gradual elasticplastic transition, the point of yielding is determined as the initial departure from linearity of the stressstrain curve and this is sometimes called the proportional limit.

对于金属逐步的弹塑性形变转变,其屈服点确定为应力-应变曲线非线性关系的开始,这个点也被称为比例极限。
Resilience: 弹性
Resilience is the capacity of a material to absorb energy during elastic deformation.
弹性是指材料在弹性形变中吸收能量的能力。
Safe stress: 安全应力
Safe stress is based on the yielding strength of the material and is defined as the yield strength divided by a factor of safety, N, or σw=σy/N.
安全应力是基于材料的屈服强度,它定义为屈服强度除以一个安全因子N,或σw=σy/N。
Tensile strength: 抗拉强度

Tensile strength corresponds to the maximum tensile stress that may be sustained by a specimen.
抗拉强度是指样品可能承受的最大拉伸应力。
Toughness: 韧性
Toughness is a measure of the ability of a material to absorb energy up to fracture.
韧性是指材料在断裂前所能吸收能量的量度.
True strain: 真应变
True stain εT is defined by εT=ln(li/l0), in which l0 is the original length before any load is applied, and li is the instantaneous length.
真应变εT的定义为εT=ln(li/l0),其中l0是样品加载前的初始长度,li是瞬间长度。
True stress: 真应力
True stress σT is defined as the load F divided by the instantaneous cross-sectional area Ai over which deformation is occurring, or σT = F/Ai.Yielding: 屈服
For metals, the phenomenon of yielding occurs at the onset of plastic or permanent deformation.
金属的屈服是指塑性或者永久形变开始发生的现象。
Yield strength: 屈服强度
Yielding strength is indicative of the stress at which plastic deformation begins.
屈服强度是指塑性形变开始发生时的应力。

第七章 形变和强化机理

Cold working: 冷加工、冷变形
The plastic deformation of a metal at a temperature below that at which it recrystallizes.
金属在再结晶温度以下进行的塑性变形。
Critical resolved shear stress( crss): 临界剪切分切应力
That shear stress, resolved within a slip plane and direction, which is required to initiate slip.
使得晶体开始滑移所需要的纯剪切应力,在某一特定滑移面和滑移方向上的分量。
Dislocation density: 位错密度
The total dislocation length per unit volume of material; alternately, the number of dislocations that intersect a unit area of a random surface section.
材料单位体积内的位错线的总长度,或者在一个随机切面上的单位面积内切断的位错根数。
Grain growth: 晶粒长大
The increase in average grain size of a polycrystalline material; for most materials, an elevated-temperature heat treatment is necessary.
多晶体材料中晶粒尺寸的增大,对大多数材料来说,晶粒长大只在升高温度加热的时候发生。
Lattice strains: 晶格应变
Slight displacements of atoms relative to their normal lattice positions, normally imposed by crystalline defects such as dislocations, and interstitial and impurity atoms.
原子相对于它们正常点阵位置的轻微位移,通常是由晶体的缺陷,如位错、间隙原子、杂质原子存在引起的。
Recovery: 回复
The relief of some of the internal strain energy of a previously cold-worked metal, usually by heat treatment.
冷塑性变形金属释放其部分应变能的过程叫回复,通常采用热处理的方法。
Recrystallization: 再结晶

The formation of a new set of strain-free grains within a previously cold-worked material; normally an annealing heat treatment is necessary.
在冷塑性变形材料的内部生成等轴状新晶粒的过程叫再结晶,通常发生于再结晶退火热处理过程中。
Recrystallization temperature: 再结晶温度
For a particular alloy, the minimum temperature at which complete recrystallization will occur within approximately one hour.
对于某种合金,在大约一小时的时间里,完成再结晶所需的最低温度.
Resolved shear stress: 分切应力
An applied tensile or compressive stress resolved into a shear component along a specific plane and direction within that plane.
一个实际拉或压应力沿某一特定平面和在该平面特定方向上分解得到的切应力分量。
Slip: 滑移
Plastic deformation as the result of dislocation motion; also, the shear displacement of two adjacent planes of atoms.
位错移动导致的塑性变形或两个相邻原子面的剪切位移。
Slip system: 滑移系
The combination of a crystallographic plane and, within that plane, a crystallographic direction along which slip (i.e., dislocation motion) occurs.
滑移面和该面上一个滑移方向的组合称为一个滑移系,晶体滑移(如位错的移动)可以沿该系统发生。
Solid-solution strengthening: 固溶强化
Hardening and strengthening of metals that result from alloying in which a solid solution is formed.
The presence of impurity atoms restricts dislocation mobility.
由于合金化形成固溶体而导致的材料硬化和强化,实质在于溶质原子对位错运动的阻碍作用。
Strain hardening: 加工硬化

The increase in hardness and strength of a ductile metal as it is plastically deformed below its recrystallization temperature.
塑性材料于再结晶温度以下进行塑性变形引起的硬度和强度升高现象。
Viscosity (): 粘性
The ratio of the magnitude of an applied shear stress to the velocity gradient that it produces; that is, a measure of a noncrystalline material’s resistance to permanent deformation.

剪切应力数值与其产生应变速率的比值叫粘性,用来衡量非晶材料抵抗永久变形的能力。
Vulcanization: 硫化
Nonreversible chemical reaction involving sulfur or other suitable agent wherein cross links are formed between molecular chains in rubber materials.
硫化是采用硫或者其它适当添加剂处理橡胶原料过程中发生的不可逆化学反应。此种反应在橡胶的分子链间形成横向连接,橡胶的弹性模量和强度会得到提高。

第八章 失效

Ductile fracture. A mode of fracture that is attended by extensive gross plastic deformation.

延性/韧性断裂:一种伴随大量塑性变形的断裂方式。

Brittle fracture. Fracture that occurs by rapid crack propagation and without appreciable macroscopic deformation.

脆性断裂:通过快速裂纹扩展发生断裂,没有明显的宏观变形。

Transgranular fracture. Fracture of polycrystalline materials by crack propagation through the grains.

穿晶断裂:多晶材料裂纹穿过晶粒扩展而断裂。

Intergranular fracture. Fracture of polycrystalline materials by crack propagation along grain boundaries.

沿晶断裂:多晶材料裂纹沿着晶界扩展而断裂。

Fracture mechanics. A technique of fracture analysis used to determine the stress level at which preexisting cracks of known size will propagate, leading to fracture.

断裂力学:一门断裂分析技术,用于确定已知尺寸的预先存在裂纹扩展并导致断裂的应力水平。

Stress raiser. A small flaw (internal or surface) or a structural discontinuity at which an applied tensile stress will be amplified and from which cracks may propagate.

应力集中:一个小裂缝(内部或表面的)或者是结构不连续,在该处施加的拉伸应力将被放大,裂纹会扩展。

Fracture toughness (Kc). Critical value of the stress intensity factor for which crack extension occurs.

断裂韧度(Kc):发生裂纹扩展时应力强度因子的临界值。

Plane strain. The condition, important in fracture mechanical analyses, wherein, for tensile loading, there is zero strain in a direction perpendicular to both the stress axis and the direction of crack propagation; this condition is found in thick plates, and the zero-strain direction is perpendicular to the plate surface.

平面应变:在断裂力学中重要的条件,对于拉伸载荷,在垂直于应力轴和裂纹扩展的方向上均为零应变。该条件存在于厚板,零应变方向垂直于板面。

Plane strain fracture toughness (KIc). The critical value of the stress intensity factor (i.e., at which crack propagation occurs) for the condition of plane strain.

平面应变断裂韧性(KIc):平面应变条件下应力强度因子的临界值(即达到该值时裂纹发生扩展)。

Charpy test. One of two tests (see also Izod test) that may be used to measure the impact energy or notch toughness of a standard notched specimen. An impact blow is imparted to the specimen by means of a weighted pendulum.

却贝/摆锤式[单梁]冲击实验:两种用于测量标准缺口试件冲击功或缺口韧性实验的一种(另一种见Izod test)。通过重摆锤给试件施加冲击。

Izod test. One of two tests (see also Charpy test) that may be used to measure the impact energy of a standard notched specimen. An impact blow is imparted to the specimen by a weighted pendulum.

悬臂梁式冲击实验:两种用于测量标准缺口试件冲击功实验的一种(另一种见Charpy test)。通过重摆锤给试件施加冲击。

Impact energy (notch toughness). A measure of the energy absorbed during the fracture of a specimen of standard dimensions and geometry when subjected to very rapid (impact) loading. Charpy and Izod impact tests are used to measure this parameter, which is important in assessing the ductile-to- brittle transition behavior of a material.

冲击功(缺口韧性):标准尺寸及形状的试件受到快速冲击载荷时,断裂过程中所吸收能量的度量。采用摆锤式或悬臂梁式冲击实验来测量该参数。在评定材料的塑性-脆性转变行为方面很重要。

Ductile-to-brittle transition. The transition from ductile to brittle behavior with a decrease in temperature exhibited by BCC alloys; the temperature range over which the transition occurs is determined by Charpy and Izod impact tests.

延性-脆性转变:体心立方合金随着温度的降低表现出从延性到脆性行为的转变。该转变发生的温度范围可以通过摆锤式或悬臂梁式冲击实验来确定。

Fatigue limit. For fatigue, the maximum stress amplitude level below which a material can endure an essentially infinite number of stress cycles and not fail.

疲劳极限:对疲劳而言,最大应力幅值水平,低于该值材料可以承受无限次应力循环而不失效。

Fatigue strength. The maximum stress level that a material can sustain, without failing, for some specified number of cycles.

疲劳强度:对应某一特定循环次数,材料能承受而不失效的最大应力水平。

Case hardening. Hardening of the outer surface (or ‘‘case’’) of a steel component by a carburizing or nitriding process; used to improve wear and fatigue resistance.

表面硬化:通过渗碳或渗氮方法使钢件的外表面或“表面”硬化,用于改善耐磨性和抗疲劳性。Creep. The time-dependent permanent deformation that occurs under stress; for most materials it is important only at elevated temperatures. 蠕变:承受应力时依赖于时间发生的永久性变形,对大多数材料而言只在高温下重要。Corrosion fatigue. A type of failure that results from the simultaneous action of a cyclic stress and chemical attack.腐蚀疲劳:由循环应力和化学腐蚀同时作用导致的一类失效。Fatigue. Failure, at relatively low stress levels, of structures that are subjected to fluctuating and cyclic stresses.疲劳:在相对低的应力水平下,承受交变和循环应力结构的失效。

Fatigue life (Nf ). The total number of stress cycles that will cause a fatigue failure at some specified stress amplitude.

疲劳寿命(Nf ):在某一指定应力幅值下,引起疲劳失效的应力循环总数。

Stress intensity factor (K). A factor used in fracture mechanics to specify the stress intensity at the tip of a crack.

应力强度因子(K):断裂力学中使用的一个因子,说明裂纹尖端处的应力强度。

Thermal fatigue. A type of fatigue failure wherein the cyclic stresses are introduced by fluctuating thermal stresses.

热疲劳:一种疲劳失效类型,循环应力是由于交变热应力引起的。

第九章 相图

「材料课堂」常备!《材料科学基础》专有名词英文翻译

Austenite: 奥氏体

具有面心立方晶体结构的铁g-Fe,也是碳溶解于g-Fe所形成的间隙固溶体。

Cementite: 渗碳体

铁与碳形成的化合物Fe3C叫做渗碳体,它的含碳量为6.67%

Component: 组元

组成合金的化学组分(元素或化合物),可用于确定其组成。

Congruent transformation: 无成分变化转变

相同成分的不同相之间的转变。

Equilibrium (Phase): 平衡(相)

是指体系的一种状态,在此状态下,在无限长的时间内,相的性质保持不变。平衡状态下自由能达到最小值。

Eutectic structure: 共晶结构

具有共晶成分的液体凝固得到的两相显微结构(组织) 。

Eutectic phase: 共晶相

共晶结构中存在的两相中的某一相。

Eutectic reaction: 共晶反应

随着冷却过程,一个液相等温可逆地转变为两个紧密混合的新固相的反应。

Eutectoid reaction: 共析反应

随着冷却过程,一个固相等温可逆地转变为两个紧密混合的新固相的反应。

Ferrite: 铁素体

具有体心立方晶体结构的铁a-Fe,同样碳溶于a-Fe中的间隙固溶体称为铁素体。

Free energy: 自由能

一热力学量,它是体系的内能和熵(或无序度)的函数。在平衡态,自由能达到其最小值。

Gibbs phase rule: 吉布斯相律

多相平衡系统中,系统的自由度数、独立组分数、相数和对系统的平衡状态能够发生影响的外界因素之间的关系:F=C-P+n

Hypereutectoid alloy: 过共析合金

可得到共析反应的合金体系,此合金中溶质的浓度大于共析成分。

Hypoeutectoid alloy: 亚共析合金

可得到共析反应的合金体系,此合金中溶质的浓度小于共析成分。

Intermediate solid solution: 中间固溶体

非纯组分的一定成分范围的固溶体或相。

Intermetallic compound: 金属间化合物

具有明确的化学式的两种金属间的化合物。在相图中,它以中间相出现,其存在的成分范围非常窄。

Invariant point: 三相点

二元相图中三相平衡共存的点

Isomorphous: 同晶形

具有相同结构的物质。从相图的理解来讲,同构意味着具有相同的结构或者在所有成分范围内固态完全互溶。

Lever rule: 杠杆规则

一种数学表达式,用来计算在两相平衡合金体系中的每一相的相对质量。

Liquidus line: 液相线

在二元相图中,液相和液+固相之间的分界线。合金而言,此线上的液态温度是在平衡冷却条件下开始产生固相的温度。

Metastable: 亚稳

在非常长的时间内可持续存在的非平衡态。

Microconstituent: 微组元

显微组织的组成,它具有确定的特征结构。由一个以上的相组成,如珠光体。

Pearlite: 珠光体

由共析成分的奥氏体转变而得到的在一些钢和铸铁中出现的两相显微结构,是由a-铁素体和渗碳体交互形成的层状或片状组成。

Peritectic reaction: 包晶反应

随着冷却过程,一固相和一液相等温可逆转变为具有不同组成的固相的反应。

Phase: 相

体系具有相同的物理和化学性质的均匀部分

Phase diagram: 相图

用图形来描述相平衡系统的成分、外界条件(例:温度和压力)与相的状态,这种综合图形称为相图。

Primary phase: 初晶相

除了共晶结构之外存在的相。

Proeutectoid cementite: 先共析渗碳体

过共析钢中与珠光体共存的最初析出的渗碳体。

Proeutectoid ferrite: 先共析铁素体

亚共析钢中与珠光体共存的最初析出的铁素体。

Solidus line: 固相线

在相图中,连接平衡冷却条件下完成凝固或者平衡加热条件下开始熔化之点的轨迹线。

Solubility limit: 溶解度

不形成新相的条件下,溶质可溶解在溶剂中的最大浓度。

Solvus line: 固溶相线

在相图中描述固溶度与温度关系的点的轨迹线

System: 体系

有两种可能的含意:(1)所研究的对象既指定材料 (2) 由相同组元组成的一系列可存在的合金。

Terminal solid solution: 端部固溶体

成分范围处于二元相图中两端的固溶体。

Tie line: 结线

二元相图中穿过两相平衡区的水平线;结线与相分界线之间的两个交点各描述在所讨论温度下相的平衡组成。

本文来自“材子考研”。

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